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100 Mb/sec and 10 Mb/sec in Fast Ethernet

The two primary areas for concern when upgrading the network from 10Mbps to 100Mbps are cabling and hubs. As discussed on the Fast Ethernet Introduction


Application Performance Management

Application performance management, or APM, is a type of software-based monitoring solution that manages the traffic of applications used by an organization.

Assigned Port Numbers for TCP and UDP (RFC 1700)

TCP And UDP Port Number Assignments Port numbers in the TCP/IP environment are discussed and listed in RFC 1700.


Bridge Technology Basics

One common cause of confusion in the networking world is the difference between a bridge and a router.


Data Encoding Specifications for Data Encoding

Specifications for Data Encoding Because of its faster rate of data transmission, and therefore higher frequency on the wire.


Encrypted Network Traffic

Encryption is a data security practice that converts normal, readable information into an unintelligible cypher. Once network traffic is encrypted, it can only be accessed by authorized users with a key, or by advanced encryption practices that can decode cyphertext. This process allows organizations to safely move confidential and sensitive information around without exposing it to bad actors.

Ethernet – Addresses and Names

The basic concept of Ethernet networking is that packets are given destination addresses by senders, and those addresses are read and recognized


Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a 100-Mb/sec fiber optic local area network standard standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for transmitting data over local area networks (LAN).

Flow Monitoring

Flow monitoring aims to give IT teams information about the traffic that crosses through their network as well as how their network is performing on a daily basis.


Gigabit Ethernet and Fibre Channel Technology

Gigabit Ethernet Is Closely Related To Fibre Channel Technology, going back to 1988! The engineering roots of Gigabit Ethernet go back to the original

Glossary of Network Terms

Find more on Glossary of Network Terms on our website.


Humorous RFCs

I knew there was something funny going on with all those RFC protocols! The Internet RFCs aren’t all engineering technicalities.


Hyperscale is a term used to describe the ability to scale up network resources like memory or CPU on demand and without limits.


IEEE 802.3

IEEE 802.3 is a combination of standards and protocols defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

ICMP is used by a device, often a router, to report and acquire a wide range of communications-related information.

Internet Protocol (IP)

Internet Protocol (IP) was originally designed to operate on top of Version 2 Ethernet.


IPFIX was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 2013.


Lateral Movement

Lateral Movement consists of techniques that adversaries use to enter and control remote systems on a network.

LLC – IEEE 802.2 Logical Links Control

The IEEE 802.2 standards for Logical Link Control define a programming interface between that part of the communications software that controls the


MTTR for Network Troubleshooting

The mean time to repair or MTTR is the average time required to solve a failed computer system.



NetFlow is a network protocol developed by Cisco in order to collect and monitor IP network traffic.

Network Capacity Planning

Network Capacity Planning is ensuring that the network has the resources it needs to prevent an impact on business-critical applications.

Network Detection and Response

Network detection and response (NDR) platforms use technology that continuously monitors and detects anomalies and malicious activity on corporate networks using machine learning (ML) and data analytics. NDR platforms enables enterprises to monitor all network traffic, allowing them to react and respond to all threats.

Network Management

Network management refers to a network's administration, maintenance, and oversight, covering both hardware and software.

Network Monitoring

Network monitoring gives IT teams insight into network health and performance so they can take corrective steps to improve the functionality of their network.

Network Performance Metrics

Network performance metrics are a collection of metrics that measure how well or poorly a network performs.

Network Topology

Network topology describes the way a network is arranged.

Network Topology Mapping

Network topology mapping is the practice of graphing a communication network’s topology and representing all its nodes and links. This is easily achieved using network topology software.

Network Troubleshooting

Network troubleshooting is the systematic process of searching for, diagnosing, and correcting network issues.


An NPM or network performance monitoring solution is a term used to describe the process of monitoring, measuring, adjusting, troubleshooting, and analyzing the quality of network performance.


Packet Analysis

Packet analysis is a primary traceback technique in network forensics, which, providing that the packet details captured are sufficiently detailed, can play back even the entire network traffic for a particular point in time.

Packet Capture (PCAP)

Packet capture is used for analyzing, troubleshooting, and optimizing network performance.

Packet Loss

Packet loss causes reduced throughput, diminished security, and other issues in your network. Learn about causes and effects and how you can mitigate its impact. 

Packets and Protocols

This section provides both an explanation of how Omnipeek works and an introduction to the basic concepts and vocabulary of WLAN networking. It also

Protocol Analyzer

A protocol analyzer is an essential tool for network operations. Protocol analyzers act as a vital intermediary between devices within a network, allowing administrators to gain valuable insights into the active communication between these devices.


QoS (Quality of Service)

QoS, or quality of service, is key to ensuring the performance of critical applications on a network. Learn how QoS works and its benefits.



By encrypting “stolen” files and demanding a ransom payment for the decryption key, bad actors force organizations to pay a ransom because it is sometimes the easiest and most cost-effective way to regain access to the files.



SD-WAN, or software-defined wide area network, is a wide area network that uses software to control network operations across different geographies.

Service Access Point – Path Control

SAP Identifiers The Service Access Point (“SAP”, pronounced like the sap that comes from a tree to make maple syrup) is used to identify which protocol

Setting Up a Type II LLC Connection

Switch Technology Over the decade of the 1990’s, the networking marketplace saw dramatic increases in desktop computing power. As application programs

Signal Characteristics

The academic definitions of various parameters important for the evaluation of clock chips differ from the practical methods used for their measurement.

Signal Encoding, Fast Ethernet Environment – Signal Encoding

Fast Ethernet Environment – Signal Encoding A number of ways are defined for representing a bit stream with an electrical signal.


The Bits in the LLC Header

In case you are ever laying awake at three in the morning and you are thinking about the fact that the three bytes in the Type 1 LLC header

The Ethertype Value Identifier

The Ethertype value appears following the Source Address field in a Version 2 Ethernet frame.

The Rationale for Using a Reliable Data Link

The Question: Why should the data link layer be connection-oriented when there are other reliable protocol layers already running on top of it? Why should

The TCP/IP Protocol Family

DARPA: The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency The United States Department of Defense began building a network in 1968

Threat Hunting

Threat hunting is the practice of an organization’s security operations center (SOC) to proactively search for cyber threats that are lurking undetected in an organization’s network.

TLS 1.3

TLS 1.3 is a cybersecurity acronym for Transport Layer Security, version 1.3.

Transmitting and Acknowledging

Examining A Protocol Analysis Trace Of Transmitting and Acknowledging In Type II Logical Link Control After the Type 2 connection has been set up, the

Type 1 Logical Link Control

Type 1 LLC is connectionless. It simply identifies the source and destination service access points. It does little more than the Version II Ethertype.

Type II LLC Commands and Responses

All the frames defined as Type 1 are technically considered to be Type 2 frames as well.


VoIP Technology and Glossary

VoIP Technology and Glossary Although VoIP systems are capable of some unique functions (for example: video conferencing, instant messaging, and