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Lateral Movement


    What is lateral movement across a computer network?

    It’s an important stage of modern cyberattacks, including ransomware.

    Let’s look at what lateral movement is, how attackers use it, and explore the way strategic IT and cybersecurity teams can detect it.

    What is the definition of lateral movement?

    The MITRE ATT&CK framework defines the term like this:

    “Lateral Movement consists of techniques that adversaries use to enter and control remote systems on a network. Following through on their primary objective often requires exploring the network to find their target and subsequently gaining access to it. Reaching their objective often involves pivoting through multiple systems and accounts to gain.”

    In the case of the 2021 Colonial pipeline cyberattack, a ransomware group accessed the company’s network through a VPN account that the company no longer used. Then they looked around for things of value to target.

    At that point, the attackers began the lateral movement part of the attack. In many cases, this occurs over a span of weeks or even months.

    What are the stages of lateral movement?

    According to Thomas Pore of LiveAction’s ThreatEye team, lateral movement is generally outside the interest of the enterprise. And he sees cyber threat actors utilize it in the following stages:

    1. Discovery – what does the organization have of value on the network?
    2. Access – what kind of credentials are needed to reach the data & systems of value?
    3. Penetration – using acquired/stolen credentials and pathways to get deeper into the network
    4. Exploitation – using the network penetration to steal/encrypt data or disrupt net ops
    5. Repeat these steps


    These repeated cycles of lateral movement set the stage for a successful conclusion to the cyberattack. And they often go undetected until it is too late. Threat actors are taking advantage of the fact that about 90% of network traffic is encrypted and often uninspected.

     Security teams without the visibility and tools to detect unusual behavior, regardless of encryption, are at a serious disadvantage here. You cannot stop what you cannot detect.

    Some technical examples of lateral movement

    For our technical readers, here are some details on lateral movement and detection from LiveAction’s Thomas Pore.

    “Lateral movement detection is about identifying conditions where an endpoint attempts to extend its local associations outside its normal collection of assets. It typically involves unique network behaviors, such as interactive sessions, stepping stones, data migration, data concentration and exfiltration.”

    Below is a list of definitions from his experience. There is a caveat here: whether these apply to your environment will depend on your security strategy or architecture.

    • Host ‘A’ performs a port scan against Host ‘B’
      • Then a bi-directional connection is established against one of the open scanned ports
    • 2 Hosts interacting within the same DHCP subnet“Traditionally DHCP is used for user environments, less so for server infrastructure. Servers tend to be configured with Static IP addresses. In a perfect world, you wouldn’t want to connect with another host in a DHCP environment, say Starbucks or at a hotel. In the enterprise world, this should be a red-flag .”
    • IPAM Rule Enforcement
      • In large organizations, IP Address Management (IPAM) is challenging, so they typically use an IPAM tool to define and track IP space. As part of this, having the ability to define who is allow or not allowed to communicate with one another becomes important.

    And Pore also touched on more sophisticated attacks. “There are advanced lateral movement attacks using Cobalt Strike and similar post-exploitation tools.” Cobalt strike is designed for cybersecurity researchers and professionals to test IT networks for security holes. Now attackers use these tools as well.

    “This is where advanced behavioral analysis of host (asset) baselines becomes important. Regardless of the protocol attackers use to establish a connection from one host to another, understanding the relationship of those hosts and the probability of that connection being established is a great way to detect anomalies.”

    Concluding thoughts on lateral movement

    In the case of Colonial Pipeline, attackers completed their lateral movement, encrypted the company’s billing system, and removed 100GB of data. They then demanded a ransom and the company paid.

    This article is a quick share resource for when you need to explain what lateral movement is, what the various stages of lateral movement are, and how this type of movement enables cyberattacks.

    About LiveAction

    LiveAction is a leader in end-to-end visibility for network security and performance. The company’s ThreatEye is a network detection and response platform (NDR). ThreatEye combines next-generation data collection, advanced behavior analysis and streaming machine learning to give SecOps teams unprecedented visibility into encrypted traffic, threats and network anomalies.

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    Related Glossary Terms

    Encryption is a data security practice that converts normal, readable information into an unintelligible cypher. Once network traffic is encrypted, it can only be accessed by authorized users with a key, or by advanced encryption practices that can decode cyphertext. This process allows organizations to safely move confidential and sensitive information around without exposing it to bad actors.

    Network detection and response (NDR) platforms use technology that continuously monitors and detects anomalies and malicious activity on corporate networks using machine learning (ML) and data analytics. NDR platforms enables enterprises to monitor all network traffic, allowing them to react and respond to all threats.

    Network monitoring gives IT teams insight into network health and performance so they can take corrective steps to improve the functionality of their network.

    By encrypting “stolen” files and demanding a ransom payment for the decryption key, bad actors force organizations to pay a ransom because it is sometimes the easiest and most cost-effective way to regain access to the files.

    Threat hunting is the practice of an organization’s security operations center (SOC) to proactively search for cyber threats that are lurking undetected in an organization’s network.