Protocol Analysis Techniques for Type II LLC
Type 2 LLC Troubleshooting
The analysis of Type 2 LLC is simply a matter of following the conversation from SABME to DM (Disconnect Mode; the last frame in a normal LLC termination sequence). You can track the sequence numbers and acknowledgments. The sequence numbers number the frames.
There are two error commands that might occur. These are:
- REJ Reject; the other station sent the wrong sequence number
- FRMR Frame Reject; the other station sent an invalid frame or sequence number
REJ’s are normal; they simply ask for a retransmission when a frame is lost.
FRMR’s are bad; it probably indicates a bug in a device driver or other catastrophic problem with system memory or processing in the device to which the FRMR is being sent. It could be sent in error by a device that was, itself, experiencing a catastrophic problem.
You should not see more than one REJ per minute or more than one per megabyte of data (if the data rate is greater than 1MB/minute).
LLC connections cross bridges and repeaters but they terminate at routers. A frame could be lost between bridges in a network. Station #1 could send frames in order: 0,1,2,3,4,5 but Station #2 might receive them as: 0,1,2,4,5. Frame number 3 was corrupted in transit. Station #2 would then send:
REJ NR=3 P
This is asking for a retransmission of all data starting with frame #3. After a REJ we normally see the two stations having a ‘little talk’. They exchange NR numbers once or twice after which we expect to see the recovery operation take place.
When neither side of a connection has any data to send then the LLC connection enters a ‘keep-alive’ state in which the stations periodically report ‘RR’ NR=, and they exchange their NR values.
Topics In This Discussion
- Introduction to LLC Layer
- Defining “Connection-less” and “Connection-Oriented”
- Type 1 Logical Link Control
- Setting Up a Type II LLC Connection
- Transmitting and Acknowledging
- Data in Type II LLC
- Protocol Analysis Techniques for Type II LLC
- The Bits in the LLC Header
- Type 2 LLC Commands and Responses
- Type II LLC Commands and Responses
- Viewing LLC with your Protocol Analyzer
- The Rationale for Using a Reliable Data Link